The Cheney Historical Museum traces its roots to the Tilicum Club. This women's social and service club was organized in Cheney in 1903. In 1935, during the club's annual Pioneer Tea, a group of early settlers asked the Tillicum Club to preserve some items and stories from the early days of the Cheney area. These artifacts were the first items in the museum's collection. By January 1958, the Tilicum Club opened a year-round exhibit in the basement of the 1913 high school.
The museum was closed from 1972-1974 after the school was demolished, but reopened in another Cheney School District building as part of the Expo '74 celebration. It eventually moved to Cheney's Wren Pierson Community Center, remaining there until January of 2009, when heavy snowfall caused the building's roof to collapse. In October of 2009, the museum moved to its current location at 420 1st Street, in downtown Cheney.
This building has a long history of its own, opening in 1890 as a general mercantile store. It also housed a jeweler, a newsstand, a grocery store, and a computer repair shop.